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RtI User Guide and Forms

Response to Instruction:

 

A Practical Guide

 

White Bengal Tiger

 

 Connecting Waters Charter Schools

 

Connecting Water Charter Schools

Response to Instruction (RtI) Implementation Manual

Version 6/7/17

 

CWCS Mission Statement                                                                                                

Preface                                                                                                                                 

Core Principles of RTI                                                                                                                    

Response to Instruction                                                                                       

            Definition                                                                                                     

            Major Components                                                                                               

                        Curriculum & Instruction                                                                         

                        School Climate & Culture                                                                         

                        Continual Improvement Process                                                            

                        Assessment/Progress Monitoring                                                                      

                        Community Involvement                                                                         

                        Special Education & RTI                                                                           

CWCS Tiered RTI Model                                                                                                   

            Tier 1                                                                                                            

            Tier 2                                                                                                            

            Tier 3                                                                                                            

RTI in Practice                                                                                                                    

            Features of RTI                                                                                                       

            Key Components                                                                                                    

                        Problem Solving Team                                                                              

                        Problem Solving Process                                                                          

                        Progress Monitoring                                                                                 

                        Terminology                                                                                                

                        Curriculum Based Measurement                                                                       

                        Data-Based Decisions                                                                               

                                    Understanding Norms                                                                  

                                    Setting Ambitious and Realistic Goals                                                  

                                    Trend line or Gap Analysis                                                                       

                        Instruction & Interventions                                                                                            

Special Considerations in an RTI Model                                                                       

English Language Learners & RtI

 

Appendices

Policies:

Resources:

FAQs:

Charts / Table:                  

Program Details:                                                                                       

                                          

Connecting Waters Charter Schools:

Waterford Unified School District

Mission Statement

  Connecting Waters Charter School is a collaborative educational community promoting academic excellence in preparing students for college and career while providing individualized public education through challenging, unique, and varied learning.

  • Assisting students and parents with educational guidance
  • Individualizing curriculum to meet students’ needs
  • Providing materials, resources and suppoRtIve instruction
  • Allowing flexibility in both teaching and learning styles
  • Promoting real-life, context-based learning
  • Challenging students to achieve mastery of academic standards

Preface

 

As we discover more about the ways students learn, the educational system evolves to meet the growing needs of those being served.  In recent years, significant transformations have occurred in our educational system that have led to unifying beliefs that all children can learn, early intervention is the key to preventing or minimizing long-term problems and high expectations yield higher results.  While the term “Response to Instruction” (RtI) emerged from No Child Left Behind and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, many of the components of RtI are supported by more than thirty years of research. 

Adapted from Author:

Misty M. Lay, Psy. S., NCSP

Nationally CeRtIfied School Psychologist

 

As noted in the title, this is a practical guide and reference for all stakeholders for Connecting Waters Charter Schools.  While each school’s pyramid of instructional interventions may differ in content, the underlying principles are consistent.  This manual shall serve as a reference to those underlying principles and processes that are necessary to implement RTI with rigor, reliability, and fidelity so that the students of Connecting Waters may have the best opportunity to achieve excellence. 

 

 Introduction

 

Core Principles of RTI

 

RTI is grounded in the belief that ALL students can learn and achieve high standards when provided with effective teaching, scientific research-based instruction, and access to a standards-based curriculum.  A comprehensive system of tiered interventions is essential for addressing the full range of students’ academic needs.  Collaboration among educators, families, and communities is the foundation of effective problem solving. On-going academic performance data(progress monitoring) should inform instructional decisions.  Effective leadership at all levels is crucial for RTI implementation.

 

Response to Instruction: A Definition

RTI is an integrated approach that includes general, remedial, gifted, and special education by providing high-quality instruction that is matched to individual student needs. Our model is based on three-tiers. It requires monitoring student progress with different levels of instructional intensity. By providing scientifically-based instruction to students, monitoring progress on instruction, and using this information to determine who is in need of more intensive instruction, RTI builds on the requirements of The Elementary and Secondary Education Act.  The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 2004 encourages utilizing the RTI process as an alternative approach for the identification of students with learning disabilities.   

Major Components

  1. Leadership: Leadership is crucial to the fidelity of RTI implementation.  It is important to establish a long-term commitment to resources and time, as well as moving the focus of RTI from philosophical understanding to actual practice.  The impact of RTI involves significant systematic changes which need to be supported throughout implementation at all levels.
  2. Curriculum & Instruction: RTI involves a tiered system of interventions designed to meet the needs of all students.  A strong curriculum based on state standards and high-quality instruction is essential.
  3. School Climate & Culture: A positive school climate provides the foundation upon which instruction will occur and all students will be engaged in learning.
  4. Continual Improvement Process: The purpose of the Continual Improvement process is to provide opportunities for Education Specialist to network with educational peers regarding data driven decisions that will lead to the development of instructional and intervention strategies with a high probability of success.  The process must integrate the use of data to guide the development of effective interventions. 
  5. Assessment/Progress Monitoring:  Using reliable and on-going data to drive the decision-making process is a major component of any RTI system.  There are three types of assessment:
    1. Universal Screening: an assessment tool used as the first step in identifying the students who are at risk for learning difficulties (CAASPP, MAPP, WRAT4, etc.) as determined by the school policy
    2. Baselines: these screenings are the first Checks administered to the students in an academic school year which help measure how a student is achieving compared to the norm group.
    3. Progress Monitoring: Progress monitoring (PM) involves brief (1-10 minute) measures used to determine whether students are making adequate progress.  PM provides information on the effectiveness of instruction and whether to modify the intervention.  Progress monitoring is done periodically, at least once per month.
  6. Community Involvement: When families, schools, and communities work together, children are more successful.  Forming collaborative partnerships with families and communities is more than simply working together; it involves working together to achieve mutually desired outcomes.
  7. Special Education and RTI: IDEA 2004 states, “when determining whether a child has a specific learning disability ... a local educational agency shall not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability" ... a school "may use a process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as part of the evaluation procedures ..." (Section 1414(b)(6)).  Connecting Waters still use a discrepancy model to determine eligibility for special education services. Connecting Waters, as part of the RtI Program, has the following referral process:
    1. As part of the referral process, the child is provided appropriate, relevant research-based instruction daily in the regular education setting; and
    2. Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement (PM) are  collected and evaluated at reasonable intervals, reflecting systematic assessment of student progress during instruction, the results of which were provided to the child’s parents.
    3. If the child has not made adequate progress after an appropriate period of time, during which the conditions have been implemented, a referral to the Personalized Learning Team (PLT) process will be completed by the Education Specialist.
    4. PLT supports the customization of relevant research-based daily instruction at the appropriate intensity level to support the child in making adequate learning progress.
    5. Over a period of instructional time, the PLT determines whether a child can progress using appropriate intensive instruction or whether an evaluation to determine if the child needs special education and related services shall be considered

Connecting Waters Tiered RTI Model



Tiered RTI Model
                                                                                                                                               

 Fewer Student                                                                                                                                                                                      Increased Intensity

 

Tier 1:  Core Level

Definition: Standards-aligned instruction and school-wide foundational instruction are provided to all students in the general education core curriculum. Tier I also is used to designate students who are making expected grade level progress in the standards-aligned system.

Tier 1 includes the curriculum, the core program, and the instruction that goes on in the regular classes; universal screening; and any other supplemental materials that are used with the core program or to support the curriculum. Instruction should be taking place at Tier 1 in such a way that most benefits the student to meet grade-level standards.

Progress Monitoring can be requested by any Education Specialist (ES) for Tier 1 students if  the ES feels the student may be in need of Strategic Level support. 

Tier 2:  Strategic Level

Tier 2 includes standards-aligned instruction with supplemental, more intense instruction, which may include specialized materials, or instructional strategy modifications. Tier 2 is provided in addition to Tier 1. In other words, students still attend and complete the work from the regular core curriculum and classes (if attending HQT, CP or Vendor courses). The instruction or instructional strategies selected are provided in addition to the regular curriculum and instruction. 

  • Students who do not respond adequately to the core curriculum
  • Provided supplemental instruction/intervention (in addition to the core curriculum), which takes place about 2-3 times per week and uses standard protocol instruction
  • Students are progress monitored at least every 20 school days
  • Most students at this level will make sufficient progress given this supplemental instruction and are “returned” to the Tier I level
  • Use Adjustment Strategies Guide and Adjustment Strategies Monitoring Form

Tier 3:  Intensive Level

Tier 3 is also in addition to Tier 1. Students who receive Tier 3 instruction/support also receive Tier 1 support. These students are:

  • Not responding adequately to core curriculum and strategic level interventions
  • Considered to be in need of intensive instruction
  • Provided high-quality, scientific research-based interventions (school approved)
  • Progress monitored at least every 20 school days
  • Are returned to Tier II or Tier I level, when they are making adequate progress

RTI in Practice
 

There are three key features of RTI:

 

  • Scientific research-based instruction that varies in intensity, based on student needs;
  • Assessment of the effects of instruction (i.e., student response data based on frequent progress monitoring); and
  • Data-based decision making (i.e., using the student response data as the basis for decision making).

 

Each feature is part of an interrelated process which should be applied to every student.  Instructional practices are evaluated and adjusted based on results of reliable, valid, and sensitive indicators of important student outcomes. If any piece is missing, the process breaks down.

 

 

Continual Improvement Model Icon
 

 

RTI represents a fundamental shift in how schools will go about identifying and responding to students’ academic difficulties. Therefore, it is important to understand what RTI is and what it is not.  RTI is more about what will be done than where it will be done. Also, it is more about how the job will get done and less about who will get it done. RTI requires educators to change how they view student difficulties and disabilities. RTI procedures turn attention away from identifying deficits within the student (e.g., processing difficulties) and toward evaluating child progress over time on the basis of age-based comparisons and rates of learning. Therefore, students’ academic performance is compared to the performance of other students across the nation and student learning is evaluated based on how quickly that student acquires instructed material. The effect of this shift is that it forces educators to focus on how much and what types of instruction students need, which increases accountability for student learning.

 

RTI is…

RTI is not…

  • About instruction
  • Just about interventions
  • An initiative that supports general education school improvement goals

 

  • A pre-referral system for special education

 

  • A method to unify general and special education in order to benefit students through greater continuity of services
  • An individual teacher, classroom, or class period

 

  • Focused primarily on effective instruction to enhance student growth

 

  • Focused primarily on disability determination and documented through a checklist

 

  • A system to provide instructional intervention immediately upon student need
  • A method for just increasing or decreasing special education numbers

 

 

Key Components

There are several aspects of RTI that are important to understand for successful implementation. 

 

Problem-Solving Team

Teams are composed of a variety of educational staff.  Team members should include individuals who have a diverse set of skills and expeRtIse that can address a variety of academic needs. In Connecting Waters, our problem-solving team is the Personalized Learning Team. The team generally consists of the parent, who knows the student best, the ES (general education teacher) who knows the program the student is using and is progress monitoring the student, and specialist(s) in the areas of student need.

 

Problem-Solving Process

The importance of assessment and effective instruction for RTI cannot be overstated. However, the problem-solving model serves as the overarching structure which organizes assessment and intervention activities. Therefore, problem solving lies at the heart of RTI. Problem solving means going beyond fulfilling procedural requirements and checklists to doing what it takes to resolve students’ learning problems.

 

Progress Monitoring

Progress monitoring is a systematic method for tracking and comparing an individual’s or group’s performance through data collection.  A consistent monitoring plan is essential to determine the effectiveness of instructional programs and interventions.  Progress toward meeting the student’s goals is measured by comparing expected and actual rates of learning. Based on these measurements, teaching is adjusted as needed. Thus, the student’s progression of achievement is monitored and instructional techniques are adjusted to meet the individual students learning needs.

Key Terminology

To understand progress monitoring, it is important to understand key terminology:

Abbreviation or Terminology

Meaning

Definition

AIMSweb

Academic Improvement Monitoring System (Web based)

A research based, data-tracking tool

AW

AIMSweb

See AIMSweb Terminology

BM

Benchmarking

A systematic process to evaluate students by comparison with a standard of measure

CAI

Computer Aided Instruction

Electronically supported learning and teaching

CBM

Curriculum Based Measure

A method teachers use to determine how students are progressing in basic academic areas such as math, reading, writing, and spelling

CAASPP California Assessment of Student Performance and Progress California’s testing and accountability program based on CCSS
Check (not an acronym) The assessments used in Progress Monitoring (also referred to as “Probe” in administration guides

Core Instruction

Sometimes referred to as Tier 1

Differentiated Instruction with Universal Access; High Quality Instruction; High Expectations; Assessment & Data Collection; Problem Solving Approach

CST

California Standards Test

Standards based assessments which are administered every spring to students in grades 2-11.  CST is the main feature of the STAR program.

GS

Goal Setting

The process of setting a measurable outcome to serve as the aim of the student's educational achievement

IILI

Intensive Instructional Level Indicator

 Cut-off between Tier 2 and Tier 3 by end of year. This score is used as part of a formula to determine the slope needed for a student to close academic gaps.

Intensive Instruction

Sometimes referred to as Tier 3 (CWCS Approved RtI Options 1-3)

Increased Frequency & Duration; Scientific Research Based Intensive Interventions; Continuous Progress Monitoring

Intensive Intervention Curriculum

Sometimes referred to at CWCS as Options 1, 2 and 3

Scientific Research-Based Interventions

Maze

(not an acronym)

A progress monitoring check used to assess how well the student comprehends

M-CAP

Mathematics Concepts and Applications

A progress monitoring check that measures a student's math reasoning and application skills

M-COMP

Mathematics Computation

A progress monitoring check that measures a student's math computation skills

Percentile

AIMSweb current Percentile (Norms Referenced)

The current percentile tells where the students score in comparison to students in the same grade across the country

PLIP

Personalized Learning Improvement Plan

See CWCS Curriculum Policy

PLT

Personalized Learning Team

A group that evaluates a child’s performance, makes recommendations for success and develops a formal plan

PM

Progress Monitoring

A scientifically based practice that is used to assess students' academic performance and evaluate the effectiveness of instruction

Probe

(not an acronym)

The assessments used in Progress Monitoring referred to as “Checks”.

R-CBM

Reading Curriculum Based Measure

A progress monitoring check used to assess a student's reading fluency and accuracy

ROI

Rate of Improvement

Spring score minus Fall Score (or Winter minus Fall) divided by 36 weeks (or 18 weeks)

RtI

Response to Instruction

A method of academic intervention to provide early, systematic assistance to students who are having difficulty learning

Scantron

(not an acronym)

A computer-adaptive test that  quickly pinpoints the proficiency level of  students in reading and math

SI

Study Island

An academic software provider of standards-based assessment, instruction, and test preparation e-learning programs

SM

Strategic Monitoring

Monthly assessment for students who have been identified as at-risk in the Benchmark or universal screening process

STAR

Standardized Testing and RepoRtIng

California’s testing and accountability program prior to 2016

Strategic Instruction

Sometimes referred to as Tier 2

In Addition to Tier 1: More Time, More Focus, Possible Scientific Research-Based Interventions; Strategic Instructional Strategies; Continuous Progress Monitoring

Target

Grade Level Target

Approximately the 40th%ile in AIMSweb; relates to within average. Not a guarantee of proficiency.

Tiers

RtI Tiers (I, II, or III)

Tier I: Core (above ~40th%ile AIMSweb); Tier II: Strategic Support(~26-40th%ile AIMSweb); Tier III: Intensive Instruction (~0-25th%ile AIMSweb)

Universal Screening

(not an acronym)

An assessment tool used as the first step in identifying the students who are at risk for learning difficulties

WRAT

Wide Range Achievement Test

A research based achievement test which measures a student's ability to read words, comprehend sentences, spell, and compute solutions to math problems

 

Curriculum Based Measurement Background

The most effective assessment available for monitoring student progress on a specific skill is Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM).  CBM is designed to measure skill fluency in early reading literacy, oral reading, writing, and math computation skills. These brief checks (typically administered in 1 to 3 minutes) are used to monitor both the student’s level of performance and his or her rate of performance growth related to age or

grade-level expectations. CBM is a reliable and valid indicator of basic skills that is sensitive to instructional changes and useful for setting student goals and predicting future student performance (Deno, 2001; Fuchs et al., 1984).  CBM is a form of progress monitoring and is not considered diagnostic in nature.  CBM probes are administered and scored using standardized methodology and are a valid and reliable method to develop district, school, or classroom level norms.  National norms are often used to establish growth rates for students.  Thirty years of research support the efficiency of CBM tools.

Data-Based Decisions

The most important part of progress monitoring is not just collecting data; it is using the data to make sound instructional decisions.  Schools must look at the data regularly, implement decision-making rules, and use the data continuously to inform instruction.

Within the tiered continuum of service delivery, decision rules are necessary for moving students back and forth across tiers as educators address their needs for intervention delivery and eligibility decisions. These decision rules must rely on relevant student assessment data. At each step of the process, good decision rules ensure effective, equitable, and fair treatment across students. CWCS has developed these specific guidelines for data-based decisions:

  • Cut scores for determining risk status (Tier III): To identify students who are at risk, CWCS will use local comparative data from student performance on the baselines for those students not showing proficiency on universal screenings.  Typically this cut score is those scoring at or below the 25th percentile.
  • The frequency and duration of progress monitoring: During Tier 2 and Tier 3 service delivery, the frequency and duration of progress monitoring will have an impact on whether sufficient data have been collected to determine a student’s responsiveness to intervention. First, data must be collected with sufficient frequency to detect changes in performance following instruction/intervention. It should be no less frequent than one time per Learning Period (every 20 school days). The length of time should allow for no fewer than six data points during an intervention phase. As with any test, the more data gathered, the more reliable the decision will be about whether a student is responding to an intervention.
  • Criteria for determining a student’s responsiveness to instruction / intervention: Determination of whether students are responding to interventions requires specifying decision rules based on students’ level and rate of progress, both prior to and after the initiation of intervention delivery. This is established through trend line comparisons (or gap analysis), which will be explained later.

Understanding Norms

Data can be used to compare student performance to the typical student in specific academic skills.  National Norms offer a sampling of how students perform nationally, or based on research collected over time.

Setting Ambitious and Realistic Goals

At the individual level, when students are identified through an RTI process as at-risk (and the core program is determined to be solid), it is critical that goals be established for the individual student so that the outcomes of his or her progress can be measured against appropriate expectations. By setting goals and monitoring a student’s progress toward those goals, the impact of instruction can be assessed in an ongoing manner, and adjustments in instruction and goals can be made as the instruction is proceeding.  Keep in mind that the ultimate goal is to close the achievement gap and meet the academic expectations established by CWCS.

A key element of effective goal setting whether used at the group or individual level is the establishment of benchmarks specifying the minimal expected performance across students. The rate of improvement (ROI) or slope is a key indicator that sets the criterion against which student performance will be compared. Closing the gap for those students whose starting point is below benchmark would be a critical goal for teams to consider. 

Trend line or Gap Analysis

A consistent decision-making rule is crucial to monitoring progress.  There are many established ways to analyze trend lines, including slope comparisons.  Comparing slopes of the aim line and trend line is the most accurate method, but is very time consuming. However, our data base has been programmed to assist Education Specialist with these calculations. 

CWCS uses the Spring 25th Percentile (cut score for Tier 3) to determine the needed slope for students performing below grade level.  Essentially, if a student is already at the 25th% in the fall, they need a ROI difference of 0 (exactly parallel) to hit their spring target, but they wouldn't be closing gaps (they haven't moved up in their percentile performance, instead they stayed in the 25th%ile all year).

EXAMPLE 1: 

Grade 4 RCBM; Fall raw score 84 (25th%ile); spring raw score 112 (25th%ile)).  


Trend Line or Gap Analysis Model - without adequate progress demonstrated
 

 

If the trend line is decreasing or “flat-lined,” (as above) it is time to reevaluate or change interventions. The above example is a visual representation of a 0.00 ROI Difference.  While the student is making progress, he/she is not making more than 1 year of progress to close academic gaps.

 

EXAMPLE 2: In another example, let's say the 4th grader is actually in the 10th%ile in the fall (instead of the 25th%ile as above). Using this calculation method has been researched as an achievable goal for most students.  The following graphs show the visual representation of this example:

 

Trend Line or Gap Analysis Model - with adequate progress demonstrated
 

Although this student has a larger gap than Example 1, the goal is reasonable.  CWCS is not expecting that all students will be at grade level by the end of the first year in intervention. Our goal is to move as many students out of Tier 3 (25th%ile) by the end of the year.  This is a minimal expectation and realistically achievable. 

The corresponding calculation to this example is an ROI difference of 0.01, the minimum amount needed to still show the student is closing gaps.

Snapshot of ROI Difference Calculation

EXAMPLE 3:

ESs with students already above the 25th%ile (Tier 2) in the fall need to ensure the student doesn't fall below the spring 25th%ile (Tier 3) at the end of the year (meaning we don't want a Tier 2 student to become a Tier 3 student).  Ideally we want to move Tier 2 students to Tier 1 instruction, but at minimum they need to maintain a positive slope.  We do not want students creating a bigger gap (meaning they have to at least have a positive ROI difference).  Here's a visual representation of this example:

4th grader with a raw baseline score of 95 in the fall (35th%ile).  

Trend Line or Gap Analysis Model - widening gap demonstrated
 

Notice the gap is getting bigger (circled arrows), because this student went from the 35th%ile to the 25th%ile. However, because the student didn't fall below the 25th%ile mark, the Database will still calculate it as a flatline... 0.00 ROI Difference (which is not adequate progress):

Snapshot of ROI Difference Calculation
 

 

If the student's spring score had fallen below the spring 25th%ile (112), he would show a negative difference.  It is very important ESs pay attention to these negative ROI differences.

 

Snapshot of ROI Difference Calculation
 

What we would want for this student, however, is to at minimum increase their %ile ranking (from 35th%ile to 36th%ile) to achieve a positive ROI difference:

Fall, Winter, and Spring Percentiles Chart
 

Snapshot of ROI Difference Calculation
 

EXAMPLE 4:

If a student is already above the spring 25th%ile target, they may have a negative slope calculation using the spring 25th%ile target (see below), which is obviously not where we want them. Therefore, the database marks the “AI” (Above Indicator) on the RtI Detail Page to avoid a false negative ROI difference.  ESs need to be aware of student’s raw score progress. If a student’s raw scores are declining, it should be cause for concern and strategic interventions may need to be considered. 

Trend Line or Gap Analysis Model - Student At Target demonstrated
 

The CWCS Education Specialists will be provided access to RtI Detail in the Database, which will calculate aim lines and trend lines for each student, and give Rate of Improvement Difference calculations.

 

Instruction & Intervention

To increase the opportunity for success at all levels within the RTI framework, instruction and interventions delivered to students should be supported by evidence of their effectiveness.  A clear distinction is made between instructional strategies and interventions.  A strategy is a tool, plan, or method used to guide and improve student learning.  These strategies are more commonly referred to as differentiated instructional tools and practices.

 

A research-based intervention is one that is school-based, prescriptive, and has a clear record of success.  RTI requires programs and interventions that have been validated in educational research.  In essence, the following questions must be asked.

  • Has the study been published in a peer-reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent evaluators?
  • Have the results of the study been replicated by other scientists?
  • Is there consensus in the research community that the study’s findings are supported by a critical mass of additional studies?

 

CWCS Guidelines for Minimally Acceptable Interventions

1. Interventions were chosen based on factors and reasonableness for the situation and severity of the problem.

2. Scientific evidence for the effectiveness of the interventions existed.

3. Interventions were chosen based on students’ instructional need (and not merely based on availability or convenience). This guideline means that there were individual student data to justify the choice of intervention. Programs were piloted prior to selection.

4. There was a pre-specified, structured, and organized plan for each intervention.

5. Interventions increase in intensity (i.e., frequency, length of intervention sessions, and change in intervention strategies) in the event that a student does not make adequate progress as determined by the goal level established through the problem solving process (according to the criteria described in the previous section on data-based decision making).

6. There is a minimum of 12 weeks of intervention sessions before a determination of effectiveness is made, unless the guidelines of the intervention specify otherwise.

7. Intervention sessions will be carried out as prescribed and there will be some evidence that they were carried out as planned. Evidence can include training, permanent products, and direct observation by an independent party.

 

Although evidence supporting an intervention’s effectiveness is important, the intervention itself is only as good as the accuracy and consistency with which it is implemented. Fidelity refers to the degree to which interventions are implemented as planned. It is essential that safeguards be put into place to determine if those interventions are being carried out as they were intended. A student’s responsiveness to an intervention may eventually be used in special education eligibility decision making. Therefore, school personnel must be confident that the intervention was performed with high levels of fidelity.  Regular monitoring of intervention delivery through observations and interviews with Parent-Educator is integral to ensuring that the interventions continue to be implemented correctly and accurately (i.e., with “fidelity”) and that they continue to benefit those whom they are intended to serve.  Fidelity should be directly monitored by an independent observer when in question.

 

Instruction and Intervention Factors to Consider at all Tiers

  • Were the programs and interventions used supported by scientific research?
  • Were standard treatment protocols followed for the interventions with students?[fidelity checks]
  • Were the interventionists trained in delivering the intervention with fidelity?(Parent-Educator Training has been made available when interventions are being delivered at home)
  • Were the interventions delivered for a sufficient amount of time?

Special Considerations in RTI

 

Referral for Individual Evaluation for Special Education Services

For students who do not make adequate progress on their progress monitoring, the ES should make a referral for a Personal Learning Team meeting (PLT). The PLT will decide if and when a referral for Special Education evaluation is necessary. The data collected in the RTI process shall be considered as part of the referral process.  Please refer to the referral procedures for PLT for more information.

 

English Language Learners

Federal law requires that all students must be screened to determine if their primary home language is other than English.  When other language is present, the student’s proficiency in the English language in the areas of listening, speaking, reading and writing must be determined. These students are identified as EL for the purpose of educational placement and accessibility to various instructional programs and services. 

 

CWCS believes that decisions for EL students require a balance between data driven decisions and environmental analysis that understands the impact of socio-economic factors, English language development, and academic history. Therefore, RtI should be component of a comprehensive approach to make instructional decisions.  CWCS will maintain data to demonstrate that core curriculum is being provided with fidelity and that most EL students are benefiting from their general education curriculum.  This data could include AIMSweb data and other assessments.

 

Appendices

 

Please visit Policies and Procedures for most up to date CWCS Policies.

Please visit Policies and Procedures for most up to date CWCS Policies.

 

Printable Tiered RTI Model

 

 

Q. Why does CWCS have an RtI Policy?

  • Ed Code Section 47607.3 specifies that all charter schools must ensure all students show improved outcomes each year or receive possible technical assistance from their chartering authority and face possible charter revocation. In order to ensure maximum student support for improved outcomes, CWCS has developed a research based Response to Instruction Policy and program. All students in CWCS will participate in this program.  

Q. Which students are part of the RtI Policy?

  • Every student enrolled in our school is part of the RtI Policy as it encompasses our Tier 1 (41st%ile and above), Tier 2 (26-40th%ile), and Tier 3 (<25th%ile) students as assessed by our AIMSweb progress monitoring checks.  Please do not refer to Tier 3 students as “RtI Students” as all of our students are part of the RtI program.All students who are required to have a Personalized Learning Improvement Plan (PLIP) as a result of non-proficiency on standardized testing will be required to participate in implementing research-based progress monitoring practices.  

Q. What is progress monitoring?

  • Progress monitoring is a scientifically based practice used to assess students' academic performance to quantify a student rate of improvement or evaluate the effectiveness and responsiveness to instruction.

Q. How does progress monitoring work?

  • To implement progress monitoring, the student’s current levels of performance are determined and goals are identified for learning that will take place over time. The student’s academic performance is measured on a regular basis (monthly) by the ES. Brief “checks” (assessments) are used which take approximately 1-10 minutes depending on the subject and the check. Most checks are done via paper pencil. Progress toward meeting the student’s goals is measured by comparing expected and actual rates of learning. Based on these measurements, teaching adjustments may be recommended as needed. Thus, the student’s progression of achievement is monitored and instructional techniques are adjusted to meet the individual student’s learning needs when adequate progress is not made.

Q. How is “adequate progress” defined at CWCS?

  • Students who have academic gaps need to work towards closing those deficiencies.  In order to close the achievement gap, more than a single year of progress must be made during the course of one academic year.  

Q.        What happens if a student does NOT make “adequate progress”?

  • Students that are not making “adequate progress” are at risk for not closing achievement gaps and/or falling further behind. Instructional strategies will be discussed with the parents at the first and second progress monitoring implementations where a student does not meet the anticipated growth goals.  By the third progress monitoring implementation, parents will be asked to choose and have their student participate in a school adopted Response to Instruction (RTI) program. These programs have been carefully selected by CWCS administration based on scientific research and program success.  For a list of the CWCS RTI program options, please see the CWCS Curriculum Policy.  

Q. What is AIMSweb and what does it measure?

  • At the foundation of AIMSweb is general outcome measurement, a form of curriculum-based measurement (CBM), used for universal screening and progress monitoring. This form of brief assessment measures overall performance of key foundational skills at each grade level and draws upon over thirty years of scientific research that demonstrates both its versatility to provide accurate prediction of reading and math achievement as well as its sensitivity to growth.

Q. What happens if my student is participating in one of the school RTI Options and is still not making adequate progress?

  • Students that participate in a CWCS RTI Program Option will continue to receive monthly Progress Monitoring. If a student continues to not meet progress goals, a variety of information will be reviewed including (but not limited to) which RTI Option the student is paRtIcipating in and attendance in the program.  If necessary, strategy adjustments may be required (i.e.: student may need to participate on a more regular basis, or a more intensive option may be required).  Students who have participated adequately in the most intensive RTI option but continue to not meet progress goals may be referred for the PLT process.    

Q. How do progress monitoring and the RTI program work for high-school students?

  • The progress monitoring for math will only be required for PLIP students who have not passed Algebra 1 (grade 8 standards).  High school students in ELA can be PLIPed for a variety of different reasons. Sometimes they don’t perform well on the CAASPP because their curriculum doesn’t cover the standards and they haven’t explicitly been taught the Literary Response and Analysis strands (etc.), but sometimes they may have unidentified reading and/or comprehension issues, in which case we are hoping we can identify with the progress monitoring tool to help those students receive the intervention and support they need. Once a student reaches about the 7th or 8th grade reading level (decoding and comprehension), they no longer need intensive reading intervention. In these cases, we need to look closer at the strategies being used to instruct them and how they are addressing the standards. High school students will be given grade 8 checks to help determine the aforementioned strategies.

Q. What are the benefits of progress monitoring?

  • When progress monitoring is implemented correctly, the benefits are great for everyone involved. Some benefits include:
  • accelerated learning because students are receiving more appropriate instruction;
  • more informed instructional decisions;
  • documentation of student progress for accountability purposes;
  • more efficient communication with families and other professionals about students’ progress;
  • higher expectations for students; and
  • fewer Special Education referrals.

Overall, the use of progress monitoring results in more efficient and appropriately targeted instructional techniques and goals, which together, move all students to faster attainment of important standards of achievement.

Q. Is this progress monitoring curriculum specific?

  • No, Aimsweb is not curriculum specific.  It is a scientifically based practice that is supported by significant research.

Q. When should I administer the first AIMSweb check to my student?

  • All Baseline A AIMSweb checks should be administered within the first 20 days of enrollment or at the start of the school year.

Q. If my student scores At or Above Target (AT) on the first AIMSweb check (Baseline A), do they need to have a second AIMSweb check administered?

A.        Yes!  Two consecutive At or Above Target checks are required to waive monthly progress monitoring until the winter check.

Q. What months can the winter check be given?

  • The winter AIMSweb check should be administered during the winter administration period of December, January, or February.  

Q. Does my student need to have a winter AIMSweb check administered if they are taking Scantron?

  • Yes!  Scantron is not part of the RtI Policy so they are both required for different reasons. Please plan both assessments accordingly.

Q. What’s the difference between an AIMSweb check and the Scantron assessment?

  • AIMSweb measures key foundational skills at the student’s current grade level.  Scantron measures what standards have been achieved at a proficient level at each grade and provide Suggested Learning Objectives (SLOs) for students to work on prior to CAASPP testing in the spring.

Q. Why doesn’t AIMSweb provide questions that are aligned to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS)?

  • AIMSweb is meant to assess a student’s key foundational skills at their current grade level and how they are responding to the curriculum and instruction being provided to them.  AIMSweb is not meant to be a tool to test for proficiency in standards, however, students who do not have foundational skills will struggle with grade level standards mastery.  Please be sure your parent-educator is using their grade level core curriculum assessments and/or the Scantron assessment to see how their student is progressing in grade level state standards.

Q. What if I have a student who I believe is a really high achieving student; do I still need to progress monitor that student with AIMSweb checks?

  • Yes, but there are some exemptions in place to minimize checks for students who are performing At or Above Target.  Please refer to the RtI Policy for specific grade level and subject exemptions as they vary widely and can be difficult to remember without referencing the policy and/or the RtI Policy Reference Chart.  Please note that students in grades 2-7 require a winter AIMSweb check even if they have an exemption that waives them from Baseline A and Baseline B checks in the fall.

Q. What do I do if my student has a valid exemption?

  • All students with valid exemptions should have an entry created in SIS stating the exemption for each subtest (R-CBM, MAZE, and M-CAP).  This is so those who review the data can distinguish between missing data and data that is not needed due to an exemption.

Q. Can I administer the AIMSweb checks during my monthly Learning Period meeting but score them at a later time to expedite my meeting?

  • No, this is not a recommended or best practice.  AIMSweb checks should be both administered and scored during the Learning Period meeting followed by immediate discussion of the results in person with the parent during the same meeting. The discussion should include the following:
  • The detailed percentile (not the raw score) for each student’s subtest (R-CBM, MAZE, and M-CAP)
  • The Tier in which the student has placed for each subtest - Tier 1 (41st%ile and above), Tier 2 (26-40th%ile), and Tier 3 (1-25th%ile)
  • Whether the student is At or Above Target for each subtest
  • Whether there will be continued monthly progress monitoring or not
  • Whether the student has a positive Rate of Improvement (ROI) difference and is closing the academic gap or a negative ROI difference indicating they are moving farther away from grade level norms
  • Strategic Intervention Strategies for Tier 2 students
  • Intensive Intervention program/class options, enrollment, and required usage for Tier 3 students

Q. What if my parent is not being cooperative and/or compliant with the RtI Policy, the AIMSweb checks, and/or the intensive intervention program/class use?

  • We now have an RtI Procedure - Implementation of the RtI Policy document that lists the necessary steps to take when having trouble with compliance of a parent.  Please refer to that document for additional support.

Q. I’m still confused.  Who can I contact to help me clarify the policy?

A.        Please defer to your advisor. Your RtI Coordinator, is always available to help at programsupport@cwcharter.org.

 

Some of the questions on this document were adapted from the Cooperative Agreement (#H326W30003) between the American Institutes for Research and the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs.

 

The term Scientific Based Reading Research refers to research that applies rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain valid knowledge relevant to reading development, reading instruction, and reading difficulties.

The research includes:

  • Systematic, empirical methods that draw on observation or experiment;
  • Rigorous data analyses that are adequate to test the stated hypotheses and justify the general conclusions drawn;
  • Relies on measurements or observational methods that provide valid data across evaluators and observers and across multiple measurements and observations; and is
  • Accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objectives, and scientific reviews.

SBRR is part of Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) law: §1177–378.
 

The biggest challenge we have in our school is finding and using one type of data for a variety of different curriculum, methodology and learning styles.  Aims Web is an inexpensive, quick, easy to administer, curriculum independent progress monitoring tool that will help us see if students are making progress in a linear trajectory.  

The brief assessments range from 1-10 minutes (depending on the subject and level), and are administered via paper/ pencil.  These assessments measure small units of growth. A single raw score is entered into the database.   

Ultimately, we are striving for student progress. Students who are not making adequate progress will be asked to select an alternate Intensive Option and may be referred to the PLT process.  The goal for all students is to close academic gaps and bring students to grade level proficiency.  

  • All PLIP students use this progress monitoring tool (including Basic PLIP)
  • Curriculum-independent, universal tool
  • Able to monitor any program option student is using for effectiveness
  • Student’s who do not show adequate progress during the specified period will be asked to choose an RTI option
  • ES will consult with families not making progress
  • Demo videos 

 

This score is significant because it tells us the cut-off between a Tier 2 and Tier 3 RtI Student estimate by the end of the year.  Students who fall below this indicator at the end of the year will be considered Tier 3 (RtI) needing intensive instruction.  Students below this indicator need to make adequate progress throughout the school year to ensure they are moving towards Tier 2 (strategic instruction).   Students who are not above the “indicator” and who have a negative ROI difference are at risk of falling further behind and possibly moving towards needing Intensive Instruction. 

 

If student is above the (spring) 25th%ile raw scores for their assigned grade level, there is no need for Intensive RtI Intervention / Instruction (Option 1, 2 or 3) at this time. This does not indicate proficiency. Please do not confuse this with the current (fall, winter, or spring) 25th percentile score.

 

ESs can check their student’s current percentile for each checks by using the Percentile Charts.  Be sure you are interpreting the percentile correctly. For checks administered between Aug-Nov, use the Fall Raw Score column.  Checks administered between Dec-Feb, use the Winter Raw Score Column. Checks administered between Mar-May, use the Spring Raw Score Column.  Percentile Charts: RCBM, MAZE, MCAP can be found on the ES RtI Page. Always use the student’s grade level of record. Remember, students falling below the 25th%ile should be placed in an Intensive Intervention (CWCS Approved Option 1, 2, or 3).  Students falling between 25th-40th%ile should have Strategic Instructional Interventions. Please continue to work with student on Strategic Instruction.

 

To read these charts: 1-find the grade level of your student; 2-find the correct raw score column (checks administered between Dec-Feb, use the Winter Raw Score Column. Checks administered between Mar-May, use the Spring Raw Score Column); 3- find your student’s current raw score; 4-scroll to the far left column to determine percentile ranking.   Example: 2nd Grade student; RCBM raw score 64 administered on Dec. 12th; student’s current percentile is 25th%ile.  

Detailed percentile chart demonstrating Winter Administration period.

 

 

RtI Intensive Instruction Enrollment Policy

Please visit  Policies and Procedures for most up to date CWCS Policies.

RtI Intensive Instruction: New Student Placement Process

Please visit Policies and Procedures  for most up to date CWCS Policies.

READING

If you have a student in need of additional support who falls into one of these categories, please contact the Curriculum Director.

 

IF

Then

3rd grade student places at or above B1…

...do NOT place them in Corrective Reading.

Student is K-1st grade…

…do NOT place them in Corrective Reading.

Student is at or above Intensive Instructional Level Indicator on AIMSweb…

…do NOT place them in Academy of Reading. Administer Developmental Reading Placement Test or consider MCI Online Comprehension Program.

If a student is at or above Intensive Instructional Level Indicator on the RCBM, but has negative ROI difference on MAZE…

…  the student should complete the Corrective Reading Comprehension Placement to determine if the student would benefit from placement in an intensive comprehension program. The student may also choose MCI Comprehension (CAI).

 

MATH

If you have a student in need of additional support who falls into one of these categories, please contact the Math Specialist.

 

IF

Then

Student is at or above Intensive Instructional Level Indicator on AIMSweb but has a negative ROI Difference…

…administer Developmental Math Placement Test.  Alternatively, student may benefit from Academy of Math.

Student places at or above grade level on the Developmental Math Placement Test…

...do NOT place them in Developmental Math.

Student is in grades 2-4…

… administer Developmental Math Placement test for Levels A-C.

Student is in grades 5-11 and scores less than 5 on the first section of the Developmental Math Placement Levels C-H…

…administer the Developmental Math Placement test for Levels A-C to determine accurate placement.

Please visit Policies and Procedures  for most up to date CWCS Policies.

 

Note: CWCS encourages most rigorous program- Option 1

**Optional Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) can be added to Basic Students or Option 1-2 Intensive Level per parent request*. **Please note, parents wishing to use Ascend Math or Let’s Go Learn or iReady Math or Reading as an additional CAI (Computer Aided Instruction) scaffolding tool (Option 3) or the Corrective Reading with a coach (Option 1) must sign up in the beginning of the fall or spring semesters during one of our school’s OML enrollment windows.  These options may not be available throughout the year.   Other options may be determined appropriate for students throughout the year based on the PLT process.

READING

Reading (Option 1):  Classes, Materials, and Progress Monitoring  

  • Instruction: Students attend Elluminate Class 4 days per week (M-Th)
  • Instructor / Coach: Trained and Credentialed ES
  • Instructional Time: 60 minutes/session (on-line)
  • Instructional Program: Corrective Reading - Decoding (by SRA)
  • Progress Monitoring Tool: AimsWeb; Administered by ES at each Learning Record Meeting (minimum of 20 school days)
  • Grade Level Concepts & Skills Review: (Recommended) Moby Max (grades 2-8) or Study Island (grades K-1 and 9-12) daily
  • Cost: Student Materials only; course fee is free.
  • Optional: CAI- Let’s Go Learn Reading OR iReady Reading


Reading (Option 2):  Intensive Materials and Progress Monitoring  

  • Instruction: Students work through program materials at home with parent
  • Instructor: Parent(s)
  • Instructional Time: 60 minutes/lesson (with parent) daily
  • Instructional Program: Corrective Reading - Decoding (by SRA)
  • Progress Monitoring Tool: AimsWeb; Administered by ES at each Learning Record Meeting (minimum of 20 school days)
  • Grade Level Concepts & Skills Review: (Recommended) Moby Max (grades 2-8) or Study Island (grades K-1 and 9-12) daily
  • Cost:  Student and Teacher Materials only
  • Optional: CAI- Let’s Go Learn Reading OR iReady Reading


Reading (Option 3):  Computer Aided Instruction and Progress Monitoring  

  • Instruction: Online Computer Aided Instruction
  • Instructor: Computer with Parent Assistance
  • Instructional Time: Approximately 20 minutes per lesson; minimum 1 lesson per day
  • Instructional Program:   Let’s Go Learn Reading OR iReady Reading
  • Progress Monitoring Tool: AimsWeb; Administered by ES at each Learning Record Meeting (minimum of 20 school days)
  • Grade Level Concepts & Skills Review:  : (Recommended) Moby Max (grades 2-8) or Study Island (grades K-1 and 9-12) daily
  • Cost: Varies (between $25-$100)


MATH

Math (Option 1): Classes, Materials, and Progress Monitoring  

  • Instruction: Students attend Elluminate Class 4 days per week (M-Th)
  • Instructor / Coach: Trained and Credentialed ES
  • Instructional Time: 30 minutes/session (on-line)
  • Instructional Program: STAMS/CAMS/SOLVE (by Curriculum Associates)
  • Progress Monitoring Tool: AimsWeb; Administered by ES at each Learning Record Meeting (minimum of 20 school days)
  • Grade Level Concepts & Skills Review: (Recommended) Moby Max (grades 2-8) or Study Island (grades K-1 and 9-12) daily
  • Cost: Student Materials only; course fee is free.
  • Optional: CAI-Let’s Go Learn Math OR iReady Math OR Ascend Math**


Math (Option 2):  Intensive Materials and Progress Monitoring  

  • Instruction: Students work through program materials at home with parent
  • Instructor: Parent(s)
  • Instructional Time: 30 minutes/lesson (with parent) daily
  • Instructional Program: STAMS/CAMS/SOLVE (by Curriculum Associates)
  • Progress Monitoring Tool: AimsWeb; Administered by ES at each Learning Record Meeting (minimum of 20 school days)
  • Grade Level Concepts & Skills Review: (Recommended) Moby Max (grades 2-8) or Study Island (grades K-1 and 9-12) daily
  • Cost:  Student and Teacher Materials only
  • Optional: CAI- Let’s Go Learn Math OR iReady Math OR Ascend Math**


Math (Option 3):  Computer Aided Instruction and Progress Monitoring  

  • Instruction: Online Computer Aided Instruction
  • Instructor: Computer with Parent Assistance
  • Instructional Time: Approximately 20 minutes per lesson; minimum 1 lesson per day
  • Instructional Program:   Let’s Go Learn Math OR iReady Math OR Ascend Math**
  • Progress Monitoring Tool: AimsWeb; Administered by ES at each Learning Record Meeting (minimum of 20 school days)
  • Grade Level Concepts & Skills Review: (Recommended) Moby Max (grades 2-8) or Study Island (grades K-1 and 9-12) daily 
  • Cost: Varies (between $25-$100)

 

 

It is important to understand what it means if you have a student who has not recently tested proficient on a summative assessment (I.E.: CST, Scantron, WRAT, etc.) and is now making adequate progress in the AIMSWeb Strategic Monitoring program.  There are a variety of reasons this could be happening:

  1. The student’s intensive instructional strategies are working to help close achievement gaps;
  2. The student had a poor performance on the summative assessment not reflective of their true capabilities;
  3. The student needs to strengthen other concept strands at grade level not being assessed with the Strategic Monitoring.

 

We celebrate the student’s success in making adequate progress on the strategic monitoring, but need to realize that additional supports may still be needed in order for the student to reach grade level proficiency.  The AIMSWeb Strategic Monitoring assesses students’ decoding and fluency skills, their ability to comprehend, and their mathematical concepts and applications.

 

Students who can accurately decode and comprehend, for example,  have a stronger likelihood of scoring proficient on summative assessments, but may still need to strengthen their Written Oral Language (grammar) skills, or their understanding of Literary Response and Analysis (literary elements) in order to move towards grade level proficiency.   In math, students who are making adequate progress in AIMSWeb may still need scaffolding supports with grade level standards in all concept domains. 

 

AIMSWeb is a tool to help us identify the student’s academic gap, to help us identify students who struggle with decoding and comprehension and applied math abilities, and to help us identify if intensive instruction is effective.  These are all important aspects towards ensuring a student is moving closer to grade level proficiency, but it is not an exclusive tool.  If you have a student who is meeting target, or making adequate progress, it is vital that all areas of the subject (ELA or Math) continue to be reviewed for strength and accuracy.  Please continue work with families on meeting state standards, scaffolding strategies, and help them identify if they are using a complete curriculum for ELA and Math. 

 

In general, students with a positive ROI difference at the most recent check administration before the end of the first 60 days will not need to choose an approved option. Students with a negative ROI difference will choose an approved option.  At the end of each year, students who were in an approved option and have not yet reached proficiency (or grade level target) should continue their program in the fall.   

 

Positive ROI differences and/or student percentiles are gauges that students may not currently need intensive interventions (i.e., Options 1,  or 3). However, these do not indicate grade level proficiency on state exams. ESs should ensure that parents continue working on instructional strategies to move towards grade level proficiency. 

 

If ESs have a student who has had positive ROI difference and falls to a negative difference at the administration just prior to the end of the 2nd semester, student should be placed in an approved option appropriate for their need for the spring semester.  If the parent does not wish to choose an option because they feel they have been using a strategy that has been successful, ES will email the RtI Coordinator at programsupport@cwcharter.org to discuss what strategies are currently being used with the student, the student’s academic gap, and the current rate of improvement. 

 

NOTE: ESs with students who have a negative ROI difference on their RCBM and a positive difference on their MAZE should contact the Curriculum Director to discuss administration of the checks.

 

 

Please see “Determining Intensive Placement Flow Chart” for assistance with this process. 

 

Students with raw scores at or below the 25%ile should be using a school approved Intensive Curriculum (Option 1, 2, or 3).  Students between the 26-40th%iles should have strong strategic instructional supports in place and these strategic interventions should be modified as needed based on student’s progress (or lack thereof).  Students not making adequate progress should be administered placement exams for Intensive Intervention curriculum (Options 1-3) to see if they place in the program. 

 

Note: There is a Developmental Math Placement test for Levels A-C. Students in grades 2-4 will use this placement test.  Students in grades 5-11 who score less than 5 on the first section of the Developmental Math Placement Levels C-H will also use the Developmental Math Placement test for Levels A-C to determine accurate placement. Students do not use the SOLVE book with Levels A-B. 

 

Determining Adequate Progress and Need for Intervention (Reading)

 

Determining Adequate Progress and Need for Intervention Flow Chart

 

Continual Improvement Process    Continual Improvement Process Icon
 

Data Analysis for Instructional Decision Making Guide

Quarterly Progress Monitoring Review

 

Data-based decision making is very important in the RTI framework. A school can be implementing all the other components: screening, progress monitoring, and multi-level prevention system, but without data-based decision making, RTI is not really being implemented. 

Be prepared to use the Data Analysis for Instructional Decision Making Discussion Guide at your ES meeting to discuss student progress, instructional strategies, and interventions. 

 

Before the meeting:

  • Assess students’ new progress-monitoring data.
  • Data sets can include AIMSweb Raw Scores, ROI Differences, Benchmarks, Other Diagnostic Assessments, and Work Samples.

 

At the meeting:

  • Discuss the analysis of your student data with your colleagues following the procedure and question prompts below (individual student names do not have to be shared with team, but all information remains confidential).
  • Make notes of team feedback and ideas you gather as you discuss your students and listen to strategies being discussed for other students.
  • Reflect on the information gathered and strategize about what changes in instruction, if any, you should discuss with parent-educator.
  • Use the table below to help guide the discussion for individual students in each instructional Tier.

 

Tier 1 Discussion Questions

  • Based on the data I analyzed, how are my Tier 1 students doing in Reading, Writing & Math?
  • What goal(s) shall the parent and I aim for by our next review point (quarterly)?What do we think the student should focus on during this quarter?
  • How did our strategies work this past quarter?
  • What goal(s) shall we aim for by our next review point? Continual Improvement Process Icon
     
  • How do we know they are continuing to make strong progress?

 

Tier 2 & 3 Discussion Questions

  • Based on the data I analyzed, how are my Tier 2 students doing in Reading, Writing & Math?
  • How far behind are these students?
  • What has been their slope (ROI Diff) since the last assessment?Continual Improvement Process Icon
  • How did our strategies work this past quarter?
  • How do the AIMSweb scores compare with their course work-samples?
  • Was the plan implemented with fidelity (were strategies used on a consistent basis with commitment)?
  • Which students have hit or are near grade leveltarget?
  • Which students are making some gains, but need to continue Tier 2 & 3 supports?
  • Which Tier 2 students are falling further behind and need a more intensive intervention (Tier 3)?
  • Which Tier 3 students are falling further behind and need to be referred for a PLT (after 12 weeks of intensive instruction with fidelity)?

 

Interim Steps (between meetings):

●Monitor fidelity of intervention.   ●Monitor student’s progress.  ●Change (fine-tune) strategy

 

RtI Adjustment Strategies Guide

 

Student

Basic

Instruction

Moderate

  Curriculum

Intense

 

  • Match instructional materials

and instructional level

 

  • Increase/decrease time on

task, task comprehension, and task completion

 

 

  •  Increase motivation related to performance

 

  • Student graphs own data (e.g., oral reading fluency, math fact drills, assessment scores)

 

  • Teach student to self monitor

(Self correct mistakes) 

 

  • Adjust location/timing of

assessment or instruction

 

  • Teach organizational skills

 

  • Reinforce students’ good

work habits

 

  • Highlight key words

 

  • Practice sight words / math facts on cards, if appropriate

 

  • Practice nightly with reading

passages

  • Practice rote skills daily (e.g., math facts, computation algorithms)

 

  • Keep journals (e.g., document conceptual understandings in math, recap learning for the day using writing skills)

 

 

 

 

  • Teach learning strategies

 

  • Increase engaged academic time with adult

 

  • Modify task structure (e.g., directions)

 

  • Increase guided and independent practice

 

  • Increase opportunities to engage in active or multi-sensory responding (e.g., writing, reading aloud, answering orally, physically manipulating, Total Physical Response)

 

  • Modify amount and types of cues and prompts

 

  • Increase amount and type of corrective feedback

 

  • Adult reads orally to student

 

  • Add written directions to verbal directions

 

  • Use timed drills (e.g., reading fluency, math fact drills)

 

  • Use mini-lesson on skill deficits

 

  • Increase Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Instruction, if appropriate

 

  • Add intensive one-to-one or group instruction (e.g., tutoring, classes, etc)

 

 

  • Use intensive (supplemental) curriculum to close academic gaps (e.g., Developmental Reading / Math, Academy of Reading and Math, etc.)

 

  • Adjust instructional pacing, so instruction is accelerating the learning

 

 

  • Review frequently

 

  • Increase task practice

 

  • Change options for students to demonstrate proficiency (ELA and Math: verbal and written responses, projects, presentations, etc.)

 

  • Examine scope and sequence of tasks presented and follow it carefully

 

  • Evaluate other subjects and/or activities that may need to be eliminated to allow sufficient time for Reading-Language Arts and Mathinstruction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adjustment Strategies Monitoring Form

Student __________________________  Grade ___  ES ________________________

 

Support Subject(s) (Underline):       Math    /    Reading

  • Progress monitor student and based on results, discuss between ES and parent the best strategies to implement in a specific effort to begin closing the academic gap between where the student is functioning and his/her grade level.
  • Identify strategies to be used for the next Learning Record Period (See RtI Adjustment Strategies Guide for suggestions. This is not an exhaustive list. Please use other relevant and research-based strategies where needed. Please identify up to two strategies per subject area to begin this process.

Strategies to be implemented:

  1.  

Frequency (times per week):_____________ How long each time ____________

  1. Frequency (times per week):  _____________ How long each time ____________
  2. Frequency (times per week):_____________ How long each time ____________
  3. Frequency (times per week):_____________ How long each time ____________

Date discussed with parent: _________

Parent Signature _________________________

ES Signature ____________________________

PLEASE RECORD PROGRESS NOTES ON NEXT PAGE

 Student __________________________  Grade ___  ES ________________________

Subject(s) (Underline):       Math    /    Reading

PROGRESS NOTES AFTER PROGRESS MONITORING

Follow-up Discussion Date

Strategy Progress Notes/Student Response:

 

 

 

Frequency (i.e., 5x/week):                                                               How long each time

Adjustments made:

 

 

 

Follow-up Discussion Date

Strategy Progress Notes/Student Response:

 

 

 

Frequency (i.e., 5x/week):                                                               How long each time

Adjustments made:

 

 

Follow-up Discussion Date

Strategy Progress Notes/Student Response:

 

 

 

Frequency (i.e., 5x/week):                                                               How long each time

Adjustments made:

 

 

 

Follow-up Discussion Date

Strategy Progress Notes/Student Response:

 

 

 

Frequency (i.e., 5x/week):                                                               How long each time

Adjustments made:

 

 

 

 

 

 Student __________________________  Grade ___  ES ________________________

Subject(s) (Underline):       Math    /    Reading

PROGRESS NOTES

Follow-up Discussion Date

Strategy Progress Notes/Student Response:

 

 

 

Frequency (i.e., 5x/week):                                                               How long each time

Adjustments made:

 

 

 

Follow-up Discussion Date

Strategy Progress Notes/Student Response:

 

 

 

Frequency (i.e., 5x/week):                                                               How long each time

Adjustments made:

 

 

Follow-up Discussion Date

Strategy Progress Notes/Student Response:

 

 

 

Frequency (i.e., 5x/week):                                                               How long each time

Adjustments made:

 

 

 

Follow-up Discussion Date

Strategy Progress Notes/Student Response:

 

 

 

Frequency (i.e., 5x/week):                                                               How long each time

Adjustments made:

 

 

 

 

Date: _______________________     Student Name: __________________________ ID#: _____________

As part of an ongoing effort to ensure all students are making adequate progress in our school, CWCS has implemented a Response to Instruction Program (RtI) for all students enrolled in our school. As part of this program, we use a tool called “AIMSweb Progress Monitoring” assessments.  This Progress Monitoring tool helps us determine if your student is responding to instruction and making adequate academic growth through a series of brief, but research-based assessments sensitive to small amounts of change.  To help you understand the results of these assessments it is important to understand the data we are collecting.  The overall goal of this program is to help us adjust instruction so that a student can make enough progress to close academic gaps in reading and math. Please note that we will use this form and update it on a monthly basis.

 

We have adapted this program in order to meet the requirements of our charter as a CA public school to ensure all students are working to become proficient or working at grade level.  Prior to the implementation of our school’s RtI Policy, we gave pre- and post-test assessments but we had not had strategies in place to assist the parent to know if any adjustments were needed throughout the year. In an effort to better serve our parents and our ESs, we are providing this valuable tool to help modify instruction for our students in order that they may have maximum achievement opportunities.  

 

First, we “benchmark” your student, which simply means we give them their first assessment and document the results.  We continue to assess the student each month during our Learning Period Meeting.  We look at the raw scores as a detailed percentile then identify the student’s Rate of Improvement (ROI) difference, which is the rate of improvement needed to “catch up” to the next benchmark if a student is not performing at grade level. Finally, we look at the student’s actual ROI calculated by the AIMSweb software.  This score tells us if the student is on track to close academic gaps and move closer to grade level proficiency.  Please review the most recent data we have collected from assessing your student.

 

Your ES will be discussing additional strategies to support the content of the state standards in English Language Arts and Math.

 

  • If your student is making adequate progress he/she is on track to complete grade level growth and/or close academic achievement gaps in the corresponding assessment areas. You should continue the current curriculum and instruction plan you have been using in reading, comprehension, and math.   
  • If your student is not making adequate progress in the corresponding assessment areas we will need to discuss some strategies we can implement for more intensive instruction.  

Date of Baseline A Check:

______________

R-CBM (Fluency) assessment:

MAZE (Comprehension) assessment:

M-CAP (MATH) assessment:

 

Parent Acknowledgement

I understand the RtI Policy:

 

________________________________

Raw Score:

 

 

 

My student scored At or Above Target (AT). Monthly monitoring will be determined with the scoring of next month’s Baseline B check. _______

My student scored below target and requires monthly monitoring. _______

My grade 4-7 student scored 3 or 4 on last year’s CAASPP and does not require monthly monitoring until the winter check in Dec., Jan., or Feb. _______

My grade 8-11 student scored 3 or 4 on last year’s CAASPP and does not require monthly monitoring for RCBM and MAZE. _______

My student has passed Algebra 1 and does not require monthly monitoring for MCAP. _______

Detailed Percentile:

 

 

 

ROI Difference:

 

My student’s usage in their reading intervention program/class has been _______ hours during this Learning Period.

My student’s usage in their math intervention program/class has been _______ hours during this Learning Period.

 

 

 

Baseline Assessment (N/A)

Note: These monthly checks are assessing progress in basic skills growth (not standards mastery). The assessments are norm-referenced with minimum target scores in the 40th percentile for students to have the basic skills necessary to be successful in grade level state standards.  

Date of Baseline B Check:

______________

 

R-CBM (Fluency) assessment:

 

MAZE (Comprehension) assessment:

M-CAP (MATH) assessment:

Parent Acknowledgement

Raw Score:

 

 

 

My student scored below target and requires monthly monitoring. _______

My student is making Adequate Progress with a positive ROI difference _______

My student scored At or Above Target (AT) for the second consecutive check and will not need another check until the winter check during Dec., Jan., or Feb. _______

My student is not making adequate progress and may require strategic or intensive intervention. _______

 

Detailed Percentile:

 

 

 

ROI Difference:

 

My student’s usage in their reading intervention program/class has been _______ hours during this Learning Period.

My student’s usage in their math intervention program/class has been _______ hours during this Learning Period.

 

 

 

 

Date of Third Monthly Check (or winter check for students not in need of monthly monitoring):

______________

 

R-CBM (Fluency) assessment:

MAZE (Comprehension) assessment:

M-CAP (MATH) assessment:

Parent Acknowledgement

Raw Score:

 

 

 

My student is making Adequate Progress with a positive ROI difference. _______

My student is not making adequate progress and requires enrollment in a strategic or intensive intervention program or class. _______

 

Detailed Percentile:

 

 

 

ROI Difference:

 

My student’s usage in their reading intervention program/class has been _______ hours during this Learning Period.

My student’s usage in their math intervention program/class has been _______ hours during this Learning Period.

 

 

 

 

Date of Monthly Check

______________

 

R-CBM (Fluency) assessment:

MAZE (Comprehension) assessment:

M-CAP (MATH) assessment:

Parent Acknowledgement

Raw Score:

 

 

 

My student is making Adequate Progress with a positive ROI difference. _______

My student is not making adequate progress and requires enrollment in a strategic or intensive intervention program or class. _______

 

Detailed Percentile:

 

 

 

ROI Difference:

 

My student’s usage in their reading intervention program/class has been _______ hours during this Learning Period.

My student’s usage in their math intervention program/class has been _______ hours during this Learning Period.

 

 

 

 

Date of Monthly Check

______________

 

R-CBM (Fluency) assessment:

MAZE (Comprehension) assessment:

M-CAP (MATH) assessment:

Parent Acknowledgement

Raw Score:

 

 

 

My student is making Adequate Progress with a positive ROI difference. _______

My student is not making adequate progress and requires enrollment in a strategic or intensive intervention program or class. _______

 

Detailed Percentile:

 

 

 

ROI Difference:

 

My student’s usage in their reading intervention program/class has been _______ hours during this Learning Period.

My student’s usage in their math intervention program/class has been _______ hours during this Learning Period.

 

 

 

 

Date of Monthly Check

______________

 

R-CBM (Fluency) assessment:

MAZE (Comprehension) assessment:

M-CAP (MATH) assessment:

 

Parent Acknowledgement

Raw Score:

 

 

 

My student is making Adequate Progress with a positive ROI difference. _______

My student is not making adequate progress and require enrollment in a strategic or intensive intervention program or class. _______

 

Detailed Percentile:

 

 

 

ROI Difference:

 

My student’s usage in their reading intervention program/class has been _______ hours during this Learning Period.

My student’s usage in their math intervention program/class has been _______ hours during this Learning Period.

 

 

 

 

Date of Monthly Check

______________

 

R-CBM (Fluency) assessment:

MAZE (Comprehension) assessment:

M-CAP (MATH) assessment:

 

Parent Acknowledgement

Raw Score:

 

 

 

My student is making Adequate Progress with a positive ROI difference. _______

My student is not making adequate progress and require enrollment in a strategic or intensive intervention program or class. _______

 

Detailed Percentile:

 

 

 

ROI Difference:

 

My student’s usage in their reading intervention program/class has been _______ hours during this Learning Period.

My student’s usage in their math intervention program/class has been _______ hours during this Learning Period.

 

 

 

 

The following is a suggestion for breaking up a typical school day for a student receiving RTI instruction in both reading and math.

 

Subject/Topic

Recommended Daily Time

Additional Information

RTI Math

30 minutes

 

Core Math

45-60 minutes

Includes 15-20 minutes of Study Island concepts and skills practice

RTI Reading Decoding / Comprehension

60 minutes

 

Core ELA

45-60 minutes

Includes 15-20 minutes of Study Island concepts and skills practice

Science/History

20-30 minutes

 

Special Interest/Life Skill/Elective/PE

60 minutes

 

 

 

 

TOTAL:

5 Hours

 

 

PLIP Assessments/AimsWeb Tip Sheet

Tests by Grade level:

Tests By Grade Level

Allotted times by test type:

R-CBM (all grades): 1 minute                         M-Cap (Grades 2-6): 8 Minutes

MAZE (grades 3 & up): 3 minutes                 M-Cap (Grades 7 & up): 10 Minutes

NOTE: If student completes MAZE before time is up, record end time on check to prorate scoring.

To Prorate:      1. Note finished time and total correct. (example: 2 minutes, 40 correct)

2. Convert time taken to seconds (i.e. 2 minutes = 120 seconds)

3. Divide # of seconds by number correct (120/40 = 3)

4. Calculate number of seconds in the full 3 minutes. 3 minutes = 180 seconds.

5. Divide the number of full seconds (180) by the calculated value from step 3.

            (ex: 180/3 = 60)

So this example student’s score would be prorated to 60.

 

SRA logo
SRA Corrective Reading and Dyslexia

 

Corrective Reading is used effectively with students who are struggling with reading, including students labeled "dyslexic," as having a learning disability, or having a cognitive impairment. The current thinking among leading researchers is that people fail to learn to read for a wide variety of reasons. In broad strokes, researchers say that the reasons some people have difficulty developing basic reading skills are:

1) they have difficulty developing decoding skills,

2) they have difficulty developing language comprehension skills, or

3) both

Difficulties developing decoding skills very often arise from difficulties processing sounds in speech (phonological processing skills). Some people have an easier time than others breaking words apart and tuning into the subparts of spoken words.

 

Corrective Reading Decoding helps students understand that the letters in text represent the phonemes in speech. In independent research, Corrective Reading is very effective with students who have difficulty hearing and manipulating the phonemes and helping them make the connection between letters and phonemes.

 

One study that looked at this in detail found that students with very low initial phonological processing made at least equal progress to those with better phonological processing (although all students were initially well below the norm), indicating that the instruction found in Corrective Reading Decoding improves both phonemic awareness and decoding development.

 

While some children have difficulty developing decoding skills because of poor phonological processing skills, other children simply do not get adequate instruction in other necessary knowledge domains that are important for developing good decoding skills (such as knowledge of the alphabetical principle). Or they do not get ample opportunities to practice decoding real words in text, and thus fail to develop sufficient cipher knowledge about words. Corrective Reading Decoding provides the kind and intensive amount of practice that struggling readers need to develop their decoding skills and improve fluency.

 

Difficulty developing language comprehension skills often stem either from insufficient practice with the vocabulary and kinds of sentence structures often used in school and in academic practice. Corrective Reading Comprehension helps students develop a rich vocabulary and appreciation for semantics. It then helps them combine information about language with background information with an understanding of the mechanics of the language (syntax), thus providing what research shows to be the basis of comprehension.

 

Summaries of research are provided on our website, SRAoneline.com. You will see Corrective Reading has a track record of improving group outcomes. But more and more researchers are asking about individual scores. If analysis focuses only upon group means, little information is available about students who make no progress or even regress. In a recent study done in Australia, 92% of the student placed in

Corrective Reading improved in word attack by at least one standard deviation (a large effect). This means that only 8% of the very poorest readers in the schools studied (less than 2% of the general school population) did not improve by a full standard deviation. Even these students demonstrated learning at a faster rate than before achieved and affirms the general positive effects that one sees in other published research.

 

In Overcoming Dyslexia, Dr. Sally Shaywitz draws on recent scientific breakthroughs to provide a state-of-the art discussion of dyslexia. The book makes it clear how the latest research, including new brain imaging studies, is uncovering the mechanisms underlying dyslexia and recommends effective treatments. Corrective Reading recommended for older students who have failed to master the earliest reading skills

(See pages 263 and 264). Corrective Reading was identified by Dr. Saywitz as an effective research-based program because it incorporates features that are essential elements for teaching students with dyslexic.

 

Specifically, Corrective Reading:

1) Addresses the phonological weakness that blocks decoding and, in turn, interferes with word identification. It teaches phonemic awareness through segmenting, blending, and rhyming, helping students to notice and code each of the parts within a word while increasing their ability to store bits of verbal information.

2) It builds a storehouse of letter and word representations by teaching phonics explicitly and systematically. Corrective Reading teaches students in a way that empowers them to try to analyze and sound out an unknown word rather than guess from the pictures or context.

3) It includes many opportunities to develop fluency, the ability to read accurately, quickly, smoothly. Fluency forms the bridge between decoding and comprehension, and children acquire fluency by repeated exposures to a word that they are pronouncing correctly. While accuracy is a necessary precursor to fluency, accuracy does not necessarily evolve into fluency. Corrective Reading builds fluency through lesson procedures that

• Focus on a student’s oral reading,

• Include opportunities to practice words in isolation and with connected text (reading sentences, stories, and books), and

• Provide ongoing feedback as the student reads.

4) The instructional sequence found in Corrective Reading progresses from sounds to words to stories, all the while supporting children with ample practice—a procedure consistent with what is known about neural circuits that are reinforced and strengthened through practice

5) Corrective Reading provides both the direct instruction and rich reading experiences disabled readers need to build vocabulary and to develop reading comprehension strategies.

6) Finally, Corrective Reading provides intense instruction that is more finely calibrated and more explicit than other programs. Scripted lesson plans provide for high-quality instruction which resonates back and forth between teacher and student. The teacher is constantly delivering the necessary knowledge and gaining the student’s attention, asking questions, keeping the student actively involved. At the same time, they are responsive to the student’s unique needs, slowing down, repeating, speeding up, or changing pace based on their interaction with students.

 

To summarize, the instructional content and design of Corrective Reading is consistent with scientifically based reading research and with what is known about the treatment of dyslexia and other reading disabilities at this time.

 

Discipline Help: You Can Handle Them All. 

 

Intervention Central website

 

Florida Center for Reading Research

 

Oregon Reading First

 

RTI Action Network

 

Response to Intervention and Positive Behavior Supports - OSEP

 

 

References

 

Batsche, G., Elliott, J., Graden, J. L., Grimes, J., Kovaleski, J. F., Prasse, D., Reschly, D. J., Schrag, J., & Tilly, W. D., III. (2005). Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special

Education, Inc.

 

Colorado Department of Education (2008). Response to intervention (RTI): A practitioner’s guide to implementation. Denver, CO.

 

Daly, E., Glover, T., & McCurdy, M. (2006). Response to intervention: Technical assistance document. Nebraska Department of Education & the University of Nebraska.

 

Deno, S. (2005). Problem-solving assessment. In R. Brown-Chidsey (Ed.), Assessment for intervention: A problem-solving approach (pp. 10-42). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

 

Deno, S. L., Fuchs, L. S., Marston, D.B & Shin, J. (2001). Using curriculum-based measurement to establish growth standards for students with learning disabilities. School Psychology Review,30,4 (pp 507-524).

 

Fuchs, L. S., Deno, S. L., & Mirkin, P. K. (1984). The effects of frequent curriculum-based measurement and evaluation on student achievement, pedagogy, and student awareness of learning. American Educational Research Journal, 21, 449-460.

 

Glover, T.A., & Diperna, J.C. (2007).  Service delivery for response to intervention: Core components and directions for future research. School Psychology Review, 36, 526-440.

 

Hall, T., & Mengel, M. (2002). Curriculum-based evaluations. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved [4/8/09]

 

Howell, K. W., & Nolet, V. (2000). Curriculum-based evaluation: Teaching and decision making (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

 

Ikeda, M. J., Tilly, D. W., Stumme, J., Volmer, L., & Allison, R. (1996). Agency-wide implementation of problem-solving consultation: Foundations, current implementation, and future directions. School Psychology Quarterly, 11(3), 228-243.

 

Kovaleski, J. (2007).  Response to intervention. School Psychology Review, 36, 638-646.

 

Marston, D. (2006).  Problem-solving model and response to intervention. Center on Instruction. Response to Intervention Symposium. Austin, Tx.

 

Telzrow, C. F., McNamara, K., & Hollinger, C. L. (2000). Fidelity of problem-solving implementation and relationship to student performance. School Psychology Review, 29, 443-461.